What are the different types of of surgeries (currently) that are used to correct Craniosynostosis?

    We have done a fair amount of research in all matters relating to craniosynostosis.  Having a child born with the condition quickly opened oureyes into the world of cranio.  We have pulled from sources such as Seattle Children’s, Cincinnati Children’s, and our own experiences with our daughter.  We did our best to compile some explanations of what the surgeries are, what they entail, and when to expect them.  Click any of the links below to learn more (they are listed in order by age of the child). The ones with * are ones that Zoey has been through.

    *Strip Craniectomy

    Endoscopic Strip Craniectomy

    *Posterior Cranial Vault Distraction

    *Fronto-Orbital Advancement

    Le Fort III Advancement

    Monobloc Frontofacial Advancement

    Le Fort III and Monoblock Advancement by Distraction Osteogenesis

    Le Fort I Advancement, or Upper Jaw Advancement

    Mandibular Osteotomy

    Final Facial Contouring

      What are the different types of Craniosynostosis?

      The types of Craniosynostosis are classified by what suture of the skull it affects. Here is a list of the types, and some information about each one.

      SAGITTAL:

      This is the most common (40%-58%) of all diagnosed cranio cases and affects more males than females. It is caused by early closure of the sagittal suture and results in scaphocephaly. Infants will often have a protruding forehead, an elongated head, and protrusion at the back of the skull.

      CORONAL:

      This is the second most common form and effects mostly females.  It is caused by closure of the coronal suture on either side resulting in anterior plagiocephaly, or bilateral resulting in brachycephaly. Infants affected will often have an elevation of the eye socket, flattening of the eyebrow ridge, and displacement of the nose on the affected side.

      METOPIC:

      This is the third most common form and occurs predominantly in males. It is caused by closure of the metopic suture, located between the soft spot and the nose, and results in trigonocephaly. Infants will often have a prominent ridge down the middle of the forehead, a pointed forehead, and eyes that seem too close together.

      LAMBDOID:

      This is one of the more rare types of Craniosynostosis.  It is caused by closure of the lambdoid suture which runs across the skull along the back of the head. It results in posterior plagiocephaly (not to be confused with positional plagiocephaly).

      FRONTOSPHENOIDAL:

      This is one of the most rare types of Craniosynostosis. It is caused by closure of the frontosphenoidal suture on either side, located near the eye socket, resulting in frontal plagiocephaly. Very rarely the closure can be bilateral. Infants will have a flattening on the front of the head toward the affected side, and possibly indentation near the temple or eyebrow bones.

      MULTIPLE SUTURE:

      Approximately 5% of diagnosed cases involve two or more sutures fused prematurely and are categorized as complex forms of craniosynostosis.  These cases most frequently have increased intercranial pressure, and are associated with developmental delay and a high rate of multiple procedures being medically necessary.

      PLAGIOCEPHALY:

      This term describes a flat place on the back or side of a baby’s head. It is caused by pressure on the bones of the skull before or after birth. This usually happens because of the way a baby likes to lie (their positional preference) in their first few months of life.