What are the different types of Craniosynostosis?

    The types of Craniosynostosis are classified by what suture of the skull it affects. Here is a list of the types, and some information about each one.

    SAGITTAL:

    This is the most common (40%-58%) of all diagnosed cranio cases and affects more males than females. It is caused by early closure of the sagittal suture and results in scaphocephaly. Infants will often have a protruding forehead, an elongated head, and protrusion at the back of the skull.

    CORONAL:

    This is the second most common form and effects mostly females.  It is caused by closure of the coronal suture on either side resulting in anterior plagiocephaly, or bilateral resulting in brachycephaly. Infants affected will often have an elevation of the eye socket, flattening of the eyebrow ridge, and displacement of the nose on the affected side.

    METOPIC:

    This is the third most common form and occurs predominantly in males. It is caused by closure of the metopic suture, located between the soft spot and the nose, and results in trigonocephaly. Infants will often have a prominent ridge down the middle of the forehead, a pointed forehead, and eyes that seem too close together.

    LAMBDOID:

    This is one of the more rare types of Craniosynostosis.  It is caused by closure of the lambdoid suture which runs across the skull along the back of the head. It results in posterior plagiocephaly (not to be confused with positional plagiocephaly).

    FRONTOSPHENOIDAL:

    This is one of the most rare types of Craniosynostosis. It is caused by closure of the frontosphenoidal suture on either side, located near the eye socket, resulting in frontal plagiocephaly. Very rarely the closure can be bilateral. Infants will have a flattening on the front of the head toward the affected side, and possibly indentation near the temple or eyebrow bones.

    MULTIPLE SUTURE:

    Approximately 5% of diagnosed cases involve two or more sutures fused prematurely and are categorized as complex forms of craniosynostosis.  These cases most frequently have increased intercranial pressure, and are associated with developmental delay and a high rate of multiple procedures being medically necessary.

    PLAGIOCEPHALY:

    This term describes a flat place on the back or side of a baby’s head. It is caused by pressure on the bones of the skull before or after birth. This usually happens because of the way a baby likes to lie (their positional preference) in their first few months of life.